JDR Vol.4 No.5 pp. 309-314
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2009.p0309


Nipah Virus Infection - Zoonosis Among Wild Animals, Domestic Animals and Humans

Yoshihiro Kaku

Department of Veterinary Science, National Institute of Infectious Diseases
1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan

May 15, 2009
June 18, 2009
October 1, 2009
zoonosis, henipaviruses, public health, animal health
Nipah virus (NiV) infection - a zoonosis emerging in the 1990s - causes acute encephalitis symptoms in humans and respiratory disease in swine. NiV outbreaks have been reported in the Malay Peninsula, Bangladesh and India. In Malay Peninsula, NiV was transmitted by the fruit bat, the natural host, through swine to humans, creating a threat in both public health and animal health. In Bangladesh, NiV has been transmitted directly from fruit bats to humans and, in some cases, from humans to humans. Epidemiological conditions differ in the two regions, due in part to societal background. To prevent zoonoses - infectious diseases transmitted from a nonhuman animal to a human - such as NiV infection, measures must be taken covering two different aspects; first, against infection originating in wild animals and, second, against infection derived from domestic animals. In wild hosts, chances for the pathogen to move from hosts to humans must be minimized. With domestic animal sources, public health and animal health specialists must strengthen surveillance and detection of suspicious cases, implement common procedures for swift diagnosis, and exchange information on how to deal with outbreaks effectively.
Cite this article as:
Y. Kaku, “Nipah Virus Infection - Zoonosis Among Wild Animals, Domestic Animals and Humans,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.4 No.5, pp. 309-314, 2009.
Data files:
  1. [1] B. T. Eaton, J. S. Mackenzie, and L.-F. Wang, “Henipaviruses,” D. M. Knipe, P. M. Howley, D. E. Griffin, R. A. Lamb, M. A. Martin, B. Roizman, and S. E. Straus (Ed.), Fields Virology 5th Ed. Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp. 1587-1600, 2007.
  2. [2] K. J. Goh, C. T. Tan, N. K. Chew, P. S. Tan, A. Kamarulzaman, S. A. Sarji, K. T. Wong, B. J. Abdullah, K. B. Chua, and S. K. Lam, “Clinical features of Nipah virus encephalitis among pig farmers in Malaysia,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.342, pp. 1229-35, 2000.
  3. [3] C. T. Tan, K. J. Goh, K. T. Wong, S. A. Sarji, K. B. Chua, N. K. Chew, P. Murugasu, Y. L. Loh, H. T. Chong, K. S. Tan, T. Thayaparan, S. Kumar, and M. R. Jusoh, “Relapsed and late-onset Nipah encephalitis,” Ann Neurol, Vol.51, pp. 703-8, 2002.
  4. [4] M. J. Hossain, E. S. Gurley, J. M. Montgomery, M. Bell, D. S. Carroll, V. P. Hsu, P. Formenty, A. Croisier, E. Bertherat, M. A. Faiz, A. K. Azad, R. Islam, M. A. Molla, T. G. Ksiazek, P. A. Rota, J. A. Comer, P. E. Rollin, S. P. Luby, and R. F. Breiman, “Clinical presentation of nipah virus infection in Bangladesh,” Clin. Infect. Dis., Vol.46, pp. 977-84, 2008.
  5. [5] P. Hooper, S. Zaki, P. Daniels, D. Middleton, “Comparative pathology of the diseases caused by Hendra and Nipah viruses,” Microbes. Infect. Vol.3, pp. 315-22, 2001.
  6. [6] L. Wang, B. H. Harcourt, M. Yu, A. Tamin, P. A. Rota, W. J. Bellini, B. T. Eaton, “Molecular biology of Hendra and Nipah viruses,” Microbes. Infect. Vol.3, pp. 279-87, 2001.
  7. [7] P. Daniels, T. Ksiazek, B. T. Eaton, “Laboratory diagnosis of Nipah and Hendra virus infections,” Microbes. Infect., Vol.3, pp. 289-95, 2001.
  8. [8] Y. Kaku, A. Noguchi, G. A. Marsh, J. A. McEachern, A. Okutani, K. Hotta, B. Bazartseren, S. Fukushi, C. C. Broder, A. Yamada, S. Inoue, L.-F. Wang, “A neutralization test for specific detection of Nipah virus antibodies using pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus expressing green fluorescent protein,” J. Virol. Methods, Vol.160, pp. 7-13, 2009.
  9. [9] V. Guillaume, H. Contamin, P. Loth, I. Grosjean, M. C. Courbot, V. Deubel, R. Buckland, T. F. Wild, “Antibody prophylaxis and therapy against Nipah virus infection in hamsters,” J. Virol. Vol.80, pp. 1972-8, 2006.
  10. [10] K. B. Chua, “Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia,” J. Clin. Virol. Vol.26, pp. 265-75, 2003.
  11. [11] K. B. Chua, C. L. Koh, P. S. Hooi, K. F. Wee, J. H. Khong, B. H. Chua, Y. P. Chan, M. E. Lim, and S. K. Lam, “Isolation of Nipah virus from Malaysian Island flying-foxes,” Microbes Infect. Vol.4, pp. 145-51, 2002.
  12. [12] V. P. Hsu, M. J. Hossain, U. D. Parashar, M. M. Ali, T. G. Ksiazek, I. Kuzmin, M. Niezgoda, C. Rupprecht, J. Bresee, and R. F. Breiman, “Nipah virus encephalitis reemergence, Bangladesh,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. Vol.10, pp. 2082-7, 2004.
  13. [13] J. M. Montgomery, M. J. Hossain, E. Gurley, G. D. Carroll, A. Croisier, E. Bertherat, N. Asgari, P. Formenty, N. Keeler, J. Comer, M. R. Bell, K. Akram, A. R. Molla, K. Zaman, M. R. Islam, K. Wagoner, J. N. Mills, P. E. Rollin, T. G. Ksiazek, and R. F. Breiman, “Risk factors for Nipah virus encephalitis in Bangladesh,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.14, pp. 1526-32, 2008.
  14. [14] S. P. Luby, M. Rahman, M. J. Hossain, L. S. Blum, M. M. Husain, E. Gurley, R. Khan, B. N. Ahmed, S. Rahman, N. Nahar, E. Kenah, J. A. Comer, and T. G. Ksiazek, “Foodborne transmission of Nipah virus, Bangladesh,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. Vol.12, pp. 1888-94, 2006.
  15. [15] J. M. Yob, H. Field, A. M. Rashdi, C. Morrissy, B. van der Heide, P. Rota, A. bin Adzhar, J. White, P. Daniels, A. Jamaluddin, and T. Ksiazek, “Nipah virus infection in bats (order Chiroptera) in peninsular Malaysia,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. Vol.7, pp. 439-41, 2001.
  16. [16] R. K. Plowright, H. E. Field, C. Smith, A. Divljan, C. Palmer, G. Tabor, P. Daszak, and J. E. Foley, “Reproduction and nutritional stress are risk factors for Hendra virus infection in little red flying foxes (Pteropus scapulatus),” Proc. Biol. Sci., Vol.275, pp. 861-9, 2008.
  17. [17] T. Vu, “Rethinking the traditional concept of livestock services: A study of response capacity in Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam,” PPLPI Working paper, FAO, 2007.
  18. [18] E. S. Gurley, J. M. Montgomery, M. J. Hossain, M. Bell, A. K. Azad, M. R. Islam, M. A. Molla, D. S. Carroll, T. G. Ksiazek, P. A. Rota, L. Lowe, J. A. Comer, P. Rollin, M. Czub, A. Grolla, H. Feldmann, S. P. Luby, J. L. Woodward, and R. F. Breiman, “Person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus in a Bangladeshi community,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.13, pp. 1031-7, 2007.
  19. [19] B. H. Harcourt, L. Lowe, A. Tamin, X. Liu, B. Bankamp, N. Bowden, P. E. Rollin, J. A. Comer, T. G. Ksiazek, M. J. Hossain, E. S. Gurley, R. F. Breiman, W. J. Bellini, P. A. Rota, “Genetic characterization of Nipah virus, Bangladesh, 2004,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.11, pp. 1594-7, 2005.
  20. [20] L. S. Blum, R. Khan, N. Nahar, R. F. Breiman, “In-depth assessment of an outbreak of Nipah encephalitis with person-to-person transmission in Bangladesh: implications for prevention and control strategies,” Am. J, Trop. Med. Hyg., Vol.80, pp. 96-102, 2009.
  21. [21] J. A. McEachern, J. Bingham, G. Crameri, D. J. Green, T. J. Hancock, D. Middleton, Y. R. Feng, C. C. Broder, L. F. Wang, K. N. Bossart, “A recombinant subunit vaccine formulation protects against lethal Nipah virus challenge in cats,” Vaccine, Vol.26, pp. 3842-52, 2008.
  22. [22] WHO, “Nipah virus outbreak(s) in Bangladesh, January-April 2004,” WHO Weekly Epdemiological Record, pp. 168-171, 2004.
  23. [23] J. G. Olson, C. Rupprecht, P. E. Rollin, U. S. An, M. Niezgoda, T. Clemins, J. Walston, and T. G. Ksiazek, “Antibodies to Nipah-like virus in bats (Pteropus lylei), Cambodia,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.8, pp. 987-8, 2002.
  24. [24] J. M. Reynes, D. Counor, S. Ong, C. Faure, V. Seng, S. Molia, J. Walston, M. C. Georges-Courbot, V. Deubel, and J. L. Sarthou, “Nipah virus in Lyle’s flying foxes, Cambodia,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.11, pp. 1042-7, 2005.
  25. [25] I. Sendow, H. E. Field, J. Curran, Darminto, C. Morrissy, G. Meehan, T. Buick, and P. Daniels, “Henipavirus in Pteropus vampyrus bats, Indonesia,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.12, pp. 711-2, 2006.
  26. [26] S. Wacharapluesadee, B. Lumlertdacha, K. Boongird, S. Wanghongsa, L. Chanhome, P. Rollin, P. Stockton, C. E. Rupprecht, T. G. Ksiazek, and T. Hemachudha, “Bat Nipah virus, Thailand,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.11, pp. 1949-51, 2005.
  27. [27] Y. Li, J. Wang, A. C. Hickey, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Wu, H. Zhang, J. Yuan, Z. Han, J. McEachern, C. C. Broder, L. F. Wang, and Z. Shi, “Antibodies to Nipah or Nipah-like viruses in bats, China,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.14, pp. 1974-6, 2008.
  28. [28] C. Lehle, G. Razafitrimo, J. Razainirina, N. Andriaholinirina, S. M. Goodman, C. Faure, M. C. Georges-Courbot, D. Rousset, and J. M. Reynes, “Henipavirus and Tioman virus antibodies in pteropodid bats, Madagascar,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.13, pp. 159-61, 2007.
  29. [29] D. T. Hayman, R. Suu-Ire, A. C. Breed, J. A. McEachern, L. Wang, J. L. Wood, and A. A. Cunningham, “Evidence of henipavirus infection in West African fruit bats,” PLoS ONE 3, e2739, 2008.
  30. [30] Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers, June Bridgeman, and Malcolm Ferguson-Smith, “The BSE Inquiry: The inquiry to BSE and variant CJD in the United Kingdom, Vol.1, Findings & Conclusions,” 2000.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jun. 03, 2024