single-jc.php

JACIII Vol.13 No.3 pp. 304-311
doi: 10.20965/jaciii.2009.p0304
(2009)

Paper:

Emergence of Cross-Generational Migration Behavior in Multiagent Simulation

Hideki Hashizume*, Atsuko Mutoh*, Shohei Kato*,
Tsutomu Kunitachi**, and Hidenori Itoh*

*Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555, Japan

**Daido Institute of Technology, 10-3 Takiharu-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 457-8530, Japan

Received:
November 20, 2008
Accepted:
February 25, 2009
Published:
May 20, 2009
Keywords:
artificial life, biological simulation, migration behavior, monarch butterfly
Abstract

We describe an artificial ecosystem consisting of five areas and evolving artificial creatures (called agents). The ecosystem is for an analysis of cross-generational migrations of the monarch butterfly. The monarch butterfly is famous for its migration. We report simulations on the emergence of migration behavior pertaining to the monarch butterfly. The area has two kinds of environmental changes: long-term and short-term changes. We focus on temperature as an environmental parameter. Under long-term change, temperature is gradually rising, and under short-term change temperature changes periodically as same as seasonal change. We put agents on the areas. The agent has two genetic components: an environmental adaptation scale and an action decision table. These components represent the physical features of the agent and select an action on the basis of sensory information, respectively. The agent also has a temperature sensor that functions with its environmental adaptation scale. It enables the agent to adapt dynamic temperature changes and to evolve to obtain optimal behaviors. With the ecosystem, we conduct one experiment. The result was that we observed that the range of migration expanded as the temperature rose. Also, we report the result of migration patterns obtained by the agents. These results show that the biology of the monarch butterfly is well modeled by the ecosystem and our evolutionary method.

Cite this article as:
Hideki Hashizume, Atsuko Mutoh, Shohei Kato,
Tsutomu Kunitachi, and Hidenori Itoh, “Emergence of Cross-Generational Migration Behavior in Multiagent Simulation,” J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform., Vol.13, No.3, pp. 304-311, 2009.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] P. Todd and S. Wilson, “Environment structure and adaptive behavior from the ground up,” From Animals to Animats 2: Proc. of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, pp. 11-20, 1993.
  2. [2] C. G. Langton, “Studying artificial life with cellular automata,” Physica. D, 2, pp. 135-149, 1986.
  3. [3] J. R. Koza, J. Roughgarden, and J. P. Rice, “Evolution of Food-Foraging Strategies for the Caribbean Anolis Lizard Using Genetic Programming,” Adaptive Behavior, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 171-199, 1992.
  4. [4] T. Oboshi, S. Kato, A. Mutoh, and H. Itoh, “Collective or Scattering: Evolving Schooling Behaviors to Escape from Predator,” Proc. of the 8th Int. Conf. on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems: Artificial Life VIII, pp. 386-389, 2003.
  5. [5] G. M. Werner and M. G. Dyer, “Evolution of Herding Behavior in Artificial Animals,” From Animals to Animats 2: Proc. of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, pp. 393-399, 1993.
  6. [6] Y. Toquenaga, I. Kajitani, and T. Hoshino, “Egrets of a feather flock together,” Proc. of the 4th Int. Workshop on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems: Artificial Life IV, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 391-411, 1994.
  7. [7] A. C. Marco Remondino, “An Evolutionary Selection Model Based on a Biological Phenomenon: The Periodical Magicicadas,” From Animals to Animats 9, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4095, pp. 485-497, 2006.
  8. [8] H. Hashizume, A. Mutoh, S. Kato, H. Itoh, and T. Kunitachi, “Multi-agent Simulations of Adaptive Behavior with Temperature-sensing Agents,” IEEE SMC Int. Conf. on Distributed Human-Machine Systems, pp. 109-114, 2008.
  9. [9] T. Sawada, A. Mutoh, S. Kato, and H. Itoh, “A Model of Biological Differentiation in Adaptiogenesis to the Environment,” Proc. of the 8th Int. Conf. on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems: Artificial Life VIII, pp. 93-96, 2002.
  10. [10] T. Sawada, A. Mutoh, S. Kato, and H. Itoh, “A Model of Artificial Life Adapting to the Global Environmental Chnage and its Analysis,” The 18th Annual Conf. of Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence, 2004.
  11. [11] The University of Kansas Entomology Program, “Monarch Watch,” http://monarchwatch.org/, 2008.
  12. [12] T. Alerstam, A. Hedenstrom, and S. Akesson, “Long-distance migration: evolution and determinants,” Oikos, Vol.103, No.2, pp. 247-260, 2003.
  13. [13] J. A. Etheredge, S. M. Perez, O. R. Taylor, and R. Jander, “Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) use a magnetic compass for navigation,” Proc. of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol.96, No.24, pp. 13845-13846, November 1999.
  14. [14] S. Perez, O. Taylor, and R. Jander, “A sun compass in monarch butterflies,” Nature, 387, 6628, pp. 29-29, 1997.
  15. [15] K. Schmidt-Koenig, “Migration strategies of monarch butterflies,” Contributions in Marine Science [CONTRIB. MAR. SCI.]., 68, 1985.
  16. [16] T. J. Walker, “Butterfly Migrations in Florida: Seasonal Patterns and Long-Term Changes,” Environmental Entomology, Vol.30, No.6, pp. 1052-1060, 2001.
  17. [17] L. Brower and S. Malcolm, “Animal Migrations: Endangered Phenomena 1,” Integrative and Comparative Biology, Vol.31, No.1, pp. 265-276, 1991.
  18. [18] J. Jouzel, C. Lorius, J. Petit, C. Genthon, N. Barkov, V. Kotlyakov, and V. Petrov, “Vostok ice core: A continuous isotope temperature record over the last climatic cycle (160,000 years),” Nature, 329, pp. 403-408, October, 1987.
  19. [19] D. L. Gibo and M. J. Pallett, “Soaring flight of Monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) during the late summer migration in southern Ontario,” Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol.57, No.7, pp. 1393-1401, 1979.
  20. [20] A. J. Lotka, “Elements of Physical Biology,” Williams, 1925.
  21. [21] V. Volterra, “Variations and Fluctuations of the Number of Individuals in Animal Species living together,” ICES Journal of Marine Science, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 3-51, 1928.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Oct. 15, 2021