Tool Orientation Angle Optimization for a Multi-Axis Robotic Milling System
Leandro Batista da Silva*,, Hayato Yoshioka**, Hidenori Shinno**, and Jiang Zhu***
*Body Production Engineering Division, Honda Engineering Co., Ltd.
6-1 Hagadai, Haga-machi, Haga-gun, Tochigi 321-3395, Japan
**Laboratory for Future Interdisciplinary Research of Science and Technology (FIRST), Institute of Innovative Research (IIR),
Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan
***School of Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan
The present study introduces a novel tool orientation angle optimization method for improving the machining accuracy of robotic milling systems. The proposed approach considers the intrinsic properties of serial mechanisms and their relationship with robotic stiffness to select optimal robot postures in the generation of tool orientation angle for finish cut. The evaluation of the robotic stiffness is carried out with two performance indices presented in this study: the volumetric stiffness performance index, which measures the overall robot stiffness, and the unidirectional stiffness performance index, which measures the robotic stiffness along a specific direction. As machining errors are reduced by optimally selecting the tool orientation angle without modifications to the tool path itself, the proposed method is significantly less convoluted than conventional optimization methods. The efficacy of the proposed method is validated experimentally using a purpose-designed multi-axis milling robot. Experimental results show that the robotic milling system is capable of machining three-dimensional shapes with a fine surface, and reducing the twist caused by the displacement of the cutting tool towards the direction of lowest robotic stiffness.
-  N. Asakawa, F. Saegusa, and M. Hirao, “Automation of Deburring by a Material-Handling Robot – Generation of a Deburring Path Based on a Characteristic Model –,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.4, No.1, pp. 26-32, 2010.
-  K. Shibuya and S. Issiki, “Evaluation of Metallic Mold Surfaces Polished by an Industrial Robot with Stick Whetstones,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.8, No.2, pp. 253-263, 2014.
-  Y. Guo, H. Dong, G. Wang, and Y. Ke, “Vibration analysis and suppression in robotic boring process,” Int. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol.101, pp. 102-110, 2016.
-  T. Nakano, N. Sugita, T. Kato, K. Fujiwara, N. Abe, T. Ozaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Mitsuishi, “Interference Free Tool Path Generation in Multi-Axis Milling Machine for Orthopedic Surgery,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.3, No.5, pp. 514-522, 2009.
-  I. Iglesias, M. A. Sebastián, and J. E. Ares, “Overview of the State of Robotic Machining: Current Situation and Future Potential,” Procedia Engineering, Vol.132, pp. 911-917, 2015.
-  Y. Chen and F. Dong, “Robot machining: recent development and future research issues,” The Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.66, Nos.9-12, pp. 1489-1497, 2013.
-  L. Cen and S. N. Melkote, “Effect of Robot Dynamics on the Machining Forces in Robotic Milling,” Procedia Manufacturing, Vol.10, pp. 486-496, 2017.
-  S. Mejri, V. Gagnol, T.-P. Le, L. Sabourin, P. Ray, and P. Paultre, “Dynamic characterization of machining robot and stability analysis,” The Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.82, Nos.1-4, pp. 351-359, 2016.
-  Y. Guo, H. Dong, and Y. Ke, “Stiffness-oriented posture optimization in robotic machining applications,” Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Vol.35, pp. 69-76, 2015.
-  H. Zhang et al., “Machining with flexible manipulator: toward improving robotic machining performance,” Proc. 2005 IEEE/ASME Int. Conf. on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, pp. 1127-1132, Monterey, USA, July 2005.
-  N. R. Slavkovic, D. S. Milutinovic, and M. M. Glavonjic, “A method for off-line compensation of cutting force-induced errors in robotic machining by tool path modification,” The Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.70, Nos.9-12, pp. 2083-2096, 2014.
-  M. F. Zaeh and O. Rösch, “Improvement of the Static and Dynamic Behavior of a Milling Robot,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.9, No.2, pp. 129-133, 2015.
-  C. Lehmann, M. Pellicciari, M. Drust, and J. W. Gunnink, “Machining with Industrial Robots: The COMET Project Approach,” P. Neto and A. P. Moreira (Eds.), “Robotics in Smart Manufacturing,” Vol.371, pp. 27-36, Springer, 2013.
-  J. Zhu, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, and Y. Saito, “An 8-Axis Robot Based Rough Cutting System for Surface Sculpturing,” F. Kimura and K. Horio (Eds.), “Towards Synthesis of Micro-/Nano-systems,” pp. 139-144, Springer, 2007.
-  J. Zhu, R. Suzuki, T. Tanaka, and Y. Saito, “Automatic Tool Path Generation for Robot Integrated Surface Sculpturing System,” J. of Advanced Mechanical Design Systems and Manufacturing, Vol.2, No.4, pp. 812-823, 2008.
-  S.-F. Chen and I. Kao, “Conservative Congruence Transformation for Joint and Cartesian Stiffness Matrices of Robotic Hands and Fingers,” The Int. J. of Robotics Research, Vol.19, No.9, pp. 835-847, 2000.
-  C. Dumas, S. Caro, S. Garnier, and B. Furet, “Joint stiffness identification of six-revolute industrial serial robots,” Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Vol.27, No.4, pp. 881-888, 2011.
-  Y. N. Hu and Y. H. Chen, “Implementation of a Robot System for Sculptured Surface Cutting. Part 1. Rough Machining,” The Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.15, No.9, pp. 624-629, 1999.
-  Y. N. Hu and Y. H. Chen, “Implementation of a Robot System for Sculptured Surface Cutting. Part 2. Finish Machining,” The Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.15, No.9, pp. 630-639, 1999.
-  N. Mithran and R. Gangadevi, “Design and Development of Cartesian Robot for Machining with Error Compensation and Chatter Reduction,” Int. J. of Engineering Research and Technology, Vol.6, No.4, pp. 449-454, 2013.
-  Z. Pan, H. Zhang, Z. Zhu, and J. Wang, “Chatter analysis of robotic machining process,” J. of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.173, No.3, pp. 301-309, 2006.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.