Tsunamis often cause structural damage by direct water forces as well as impact forces by water-born missiles. The available design guidelines for tsunami forces are reviewed and evaluated. Synthesizing technical information, rational methodologies are developed for the determination of design tsunami forces on buildings located in onshore areas where tsunami inundation maps are available. Although there are substantial uncertainties with respect to tsunami phenomena themselves, the simple methodologies developed may be used for preliminary evaluation of tsunami forces.
Keywords: tsunamis, hydrodynamic forces, surge forces, debris impact