Jin Guo, Shuxiang Guo, Nan Xiao, and Baofeng Gao
Minimally invasive surgery is a specialized surgical technique that permits vascular interventions through very small incisions. This minimizes patients°« trauma and permits faster recovery compared to conventional surgery. The significant disadvantage of this surgical technique is, however, its complexity; therefore, it requires extensive training before surgery. In this paper, we presented virtual reality simulators for training with force feedback in minimally invasive surgery. This application allows generating realistic physicalbased models of catheters and blood vessels, and enables surgeons to touch, feel and manipulate virtual catheter inside a vascularmodel through the same surgical operation mode as is used in actual MIS. Experimental results show that the error rate is in an acceptable range and that simulators can be used for surgery training.
Keywords: minimally invasive surgery, virtual reality simulators, physical-based models, training system