Kshitij C. Shrestha, Takuya Nagae, and Yoshikazu Araki
This paper focuses on finite element (FE) modeling of the out-of-plane response of retrofitted masonry walls subjected to quasistatic cyclic loading. Retrofitting involves inserting inclined stainless steel bars on the plane perpendicular to the wall face, already practiced in several historical masonry structures in Japan. The FE model for masonry walls, in which continuum elements represent brick units, interface elements the brick unit/mortar interface, and truss elements reinforcing bars, is demonstrated in comparisons with experimental results. A simplified FE model we also propose represents reinforcing bars by an equivalent vertical bar to facilitate convergence and reduce the computational burden. A study evaluating numerical result sensitivity to modeling parameters demonstrates both modeling stability and retrofitting robustness.
Keywords: unreinforced masonry, seismic retrofitting, out-of-plane response, quasi-static cyclic loading, finite